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Roger N. Meyer "...of a different mind "
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ADULT VERSION

Australian Scale for Asperger Syndrome

Garnett and Attwood, 1995 (original authors)

DRAFT VERSION  5-25-2003

Modified and Copyright © Roger N. Meyer, 2003/2005®

 

[Note:  This unapproved adult Asperger Syndrome Rating Scale is based on the Attwood Australian scale found in Tony Attwood (1998) Asperger Syndrome on pages 17-19.  Language and concepts were taken from the Australian scale, and credit is due its authors for such items. This version upgrades items in the 1995 scale into adult age and task-specific questions.  The number of questions is more than double those in the Australian scale, reflecting the complexity of adult issues.  Readers should use the 6-point Likert scale in the Attwood book for rating the response to each question, and be guided by instructions found on page 20 and following pages.  If the Attwood book is not available to you, write your answer as a number from one to six beneath each question.  When a question has multiple parts, assign a single numerical score to reflect your response to the entire question, even though it may contain some contradictory elements.  Additional instructions for this scale appear at the end of this document.  Author note:  The term "person" has been substituted for "child".  The politically incorrect terms "he", "him", or "his" refers to persons of both sexes.]

 

This scale has not been perfected or finalized.  It is a draft, working tool.  Its author has used responses to its questions as a guide in composing legal briefs and case management narratives explaining a given individual's impairment compared to non-autistic spectrum adults for the purpose of disability entitlement program eligibility.  This scale has been designed to provide lay evaluators, adjudicators and case managers with a rough measure of a rated adult individual's  social and communication functioning without the cognitive interpretive support of others.

 

Since Asperger Syndrome manifests itself primarily as a different cognitive and social communication condition, this scale focuses on the individual's cognitive and social communication deficits.    This is not a precise instrument, nor should its multi-part questions, answerable by a single scale rating below any given question, be considered a scientific measurement tool. 

 

Supplemental, scientifically developed and validated instruments, professionally administered, can be used to more precisely gauge the extent of an adult individual's full-range dependency upon others such as the Supports Intensity Scale® (SIS 2004) which can be ordered from the American Association on Mental Retardation at http://www.aamr.org or the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, Second Edition ( VABS-II, 2005, AGS Publishing, Inc., http://www.agsnet.com/).

 

In answering the questions, the rater should work through the questions quickly and in the order provided.  While it may be tempting to linger on items or return to them, the value to this scale lies in providing a "first impression" response to the question.  Research has consistently demonstrated that first impression responses are more accurate than those made as a result of rumination or picking the question apart.

 

Note on Confidentiality and Privacy

 

If you are not the person being "scaled," that person has provided permission to Roger N. Meyer to disclose his/her disability to you.  That permission is found on a separate HIPAA-compliant authorization and release form and is found as an entry under the "purpose" section of the authorization and release.

 

A.  Social and Emotional Abilities

 

  1.  Does the person lack understanding of how to play adult games with others?  For example,

          is he unaware of the unwritten social rules of leisure and recreation?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

       Never                                                               Always     

 

 

   2.  During unstructured time such as work breaks and informal social events, does he avoid

          social contact?  For example, eats alone, reads or continues to work during breaks.

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

  3.  Is the person unaware of social conventions or codes of conduct including unwritten rules at

          work?  Does he make inappropriate comments or actions?  For example, is he unaware of

          the offending or other unintended effect of his comments?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

  4.  Does the person lack empathy, i.e., an intuitive understanding of another person's feelings?

          For  example, is he not likely to offer an apology or acknowledge his responsibility for a

          relationship that has failed?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

  5.  Does the person expect other people to know his thoughts, experiences and opinions?  For

          example, he doesn't realize that you couldn't know about something because you were not

          there at  the time.  Does he presume to know what you are thinking when you are in the

          same physical place but your attention has not been directed to him?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

  6.  Does the person worry excessively or fret about things that change or that don't go as

          expected?  Does the person demand frequent reassurance that matters are OK?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

  7.  Does the person express concern about loneliness or a tendency to self-isolate?  Is he

          frustrated or anxious about not having any friends or only a few friends?  Does he say that

          he does not know how to make friends?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

  8.  Does the person express emotions bluntly?  Does he "blurt out" his emotional expressions

          in ways out of scale to the situation, or before or after emotional expression is expected?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

  9.  Does the person mean to express one emotion but actually express another?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

10.  Does the person have an unusual attitude towards competition?  For example, is he aversive

          to competitive activities such as sports, games or workplace performance contests?  Does

          he act competitively in activities that call for collaboration and cooperation?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

 

11.  Does the person demonstrate indifference to normal or expected peer pressure?  Is he

          generally unaware of widespread crazes or fashions of the moment?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

12.  Does the person vocalize exceptionally strong approval or disapproval of benign acts and

          the choice behaviors of others?  Does he attempt to impose his choice as "the only choice"

          in situations allowing optional choices by others?  For example, food preferences, cultural

          activities, techniques of task performance, and social entertainment.

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

13.  Is the person unaware of others' different styles of learning?  If he is aware, is he intolerant of

           styles other than his own?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

14.  Does the person not easily modify  his behavior while in the presence of persons of different

          rank or strangers?  For example, choice of attire, posture and gestures, addressing the

          other(s)by their first name(s), making inappropriate demands on the time of others, and not

          being aware of the differing deference conduct of others.  If he is aware, is he critical of

          that conduct?  Does he expect everyone to accept him just as he is?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

15.  Does the person have difficulty accepting criticism, correction, and direction?  Does he have

          a problem offering the same to others?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

16.  Does the person have difficulty managing conflict, disagreement, and negotiation?  Does the

          person have trouble with social problem-solving behavior?  Does he confront others over

          differences, pout, or withdraw from the situation in an untimely way rather than remain in

          uncomfortable or difficult situations?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

17.  Does the person understand the reason for physical boundaries, personal space, and others'

          needs for privacy?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

18.  Does the person report life-long issues with explosive anger, rage, and lingering resentment

          over ancient sleights?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

19.  Does the person seem to function in ways suggesting a constant low level of depression?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

B.  Communication Skills

 

 

20.  Does the person take words, phrases, or directions literally?  Does he not understand

          figures of speech and common clichés without explanation?  Does he not understand

          sarcasm?  Does he have trouble understanding humor?  Does he have an unusual sense of

          humor?  Does he not understand the function of banter and small talk?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

21.  Does the person have an unusual tone of voice (monotone, sing-song an "affected" foreign

          accent, unusual inflections, prosody, and other oddities of fluid speech?  Does he speak

          with an unusually loud or soft volume level?  Does he not use changes of tone, inflection or

          volume levels appropriate for different levels of conversational formality, location, and

          topic choice?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

22.  When talking, does the person appear uninterested in your side of the conversation?  Does

          he speak in a monologue, exert inappropriate control over the flow or subject matter of

          conversation, otherwise not consistently engage in a fluid, reciprocal exchange?  Is he

          uncomfortable with pauses or silence in paired or group conversation?  Does he fail to

          observe turn taking rules?  Does he interrupt others despite repeated correction?  Does he

          have trouble closing a conversation?  Does he miss gestural, postural and facial cues of

          boredom, agreement, dissatisfaction, impatience and intention to end conversations?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

23.  Is the person prone to "go off on tangents" and otherwise become distracted by a minor

          topic?  For example, if there is an agreed-upon agenda, does he have trouble sticking to it ?

          Does he return to something already discussed "for one last word"?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

24.  While directly engaged in conversation, does the person use less eye contact than you would

          expect?  Does he appear to either stare away from you or have a vacant expression when

          listening or talking?  If looking at you, does he stare?  Do his facial gestures, body posture

          and stance project messages different than his words?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

25.  Is the person's speech over-precise, pedantic, or "professor-ish"?  Does he tend to challenge

          or correct the word choices of others?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

26.  Once started, does the person demonstrate an encyclopedic knowledge of a topic?  Do you

          have the sense that regardless of your interest, he starts conversations just to talk about his

          own?  Regardless of what is being discussed, does he repeatedly return to his topic?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

27.  Does the person have difficulty summarizing or "getting to the gist" when reporting

          conversations or describing events?  Does he "ramble" without focus?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

28.  Does the person say that others characterize him negatively as "a know-it-all"?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

29.  Does the person have problems repairing a conversation?  For example, when he is

          confused or has lost the train of thought, has he earlier failed to check in to track whether

          he is "on the same page"?  Once confused, does he not ask for clarification or redirection?

          Does he abruptly switch to a different topic without using transition phrases?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

30.  Does the person engage in audible self-talk during a conversation?  When asked questions,

          does he offer responses that seem repetitive, scripted or askew given the context and the

          topic of conversation?  Does he take an unusually long time responding in conversational

          give and take?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

 

C.  Cognitive and Executive Function Skills

 

 

31.  Does the person have specific learning disabilities?  Examples are problems with math

          functions and/or written math problems, a history of precocious reading combined with

          comprehension issues, slow reading speed, dyslexia, bad handwriting, speech delay and

          pragmatic language problems, short-term working memory deficits leading to frequent

          checking and reconfirmation behavior, little understanding of the functions of a given

          behavior, difficulty in perceiving differences between experiences and adjusting

          responses in accord with new information, repetitive and dysfunctional study habits and

          learning behaviors with obvious difficulty stopping or changing them.

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

32.  Does the person report having trouble with understanding and following directions?  Does

          he do things "his way" despite directions and instructions requiring a different approach

          to task completion or performance?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

  

 33.  Does the person have problems multi-tasking?  Must he complete a single activity before

          "catching up" to perform others?  Does he prefer step-by-step instruction?  Does he become

          agitated when given multiple tasks or directed to change his priorities?  Can he not describe

          his style of learning?  Does he report frustration or stress when being instructed to learn in

          ways that do not comport with his learning style?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

34.  Does he report major study skills impediments in K-12, post-secondary education or

          vocational and on-the-job training and instruction?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

35.  Does the person become disoriented when presented first with the "big picture" of a job?

          At that moment, does he not wish to understand the function of a given task in a greater

          scheme?  Does he prefer to master one step at a time and then come up with his own

         characterization of the big picture that is different than that used by others?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

36.  From reports of others or self-reports, would the person consider himself a "dreamer" or "off

           in my own world" some or much of the time?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

37.  Does the person have projects or interests that others do not understand regardless of his

          efforts to explain them?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

38.  Does the person have limited interests?  Would the person characterize most of his interests

          as "technical" rather than "artistic"?

 

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

39.  Does the person have time management difficulties?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

40.  Does the person have difficulty with large projects, prioritizing and sequencing tasks, setting

          and keeping to schedules, and knowing when "enough is enough"?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

41.  Does the person have an exceptional long-term memory for events and facts?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

42.  Does the person report no benefit from meditation, visualization, and similar means of

          "imaginative" stress management?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

43.  Does the person have intense reaction to change; and as much trouble with small changes

          as big changes?  Examples are changes in a route or delivery schedule, restaurant menu

          changes or moving to a new location.

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

44.  Does the person frequently engage in black and white thinking?  Does he have trouble with

          "gray areas" and with others "bending the rules"?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

45.  Does the person have an unusual sense of justice, morality, and notions of proper behavior?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

46.  Does the person "tell the truth, and the whole truth" regardless of the circumstances or

          consequences?  Does his frankness get him into trouble?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

47.  Is the person drawn to rules and regulations, protocols, procedures, and writing or following

          directives and standards?  Does the person have a high interest in "quality work"?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

48.  Is the person a perfectionist?  Does he express pleasure with being extraordinarily precise

          and detail oriented?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

49.  Does the person find great comfort in performing rote, repetitive tasks that for a person of

          their intelligence and educational level is puzzling to others?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

50.  Does the person appear to maintain a high state of vigilance and suspicion?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

51.  Is the person likely to be intense and alert with matters of interest, and nonchalant or

          dismissive of matters he doesn't consider important?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

 

52.  Does the person have money management difficulties?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

53.  Does the person procrastinate, and is he concerned about it?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

54.  Is the person subject to unexplainable bouts of impulsivity?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

55.  For his/her age and stage of life, is the person uncharacteristically conservative and equally

          hesitant about making small and major decisions?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

56.  For work and other relationships, does the person have difficulty "reading another  person's

          mind"?  Examples would be not anticipating and acting to address a work colleague's

          functional and emotional needs.  The same applies to a partner's unarticulated needs for

          emotional, sexual satisfaction and social as well as physical companionship.

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

57.  Does the person describe his behavior as being like a packrat, unable to part with things of

          little or no intrinsic value?  Is the opposite sometimes true?  Does the person impulsively

          give things away or discard items known by others to have a future value?

 

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

58.  Does the person have difficulty in organizing personal records, forget appointments and

          important commitments or constantly misplace important documents or objects?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

D.  Somatic, Motoric and Presentation Issues

 

 

59.  Does the person describe himself as clumsy, uncoordinated or prone to accidents?

          Examples are difficulty performing assembly work, sewing and household repairs,

          and activities requiring bilateral coordination and sensory integration?

 

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

60.  Does the person not exercise regularly or maintain good physical condition?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

61.  Does the person have bad feelings about his body and his appearance?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

62.  Does the person have unusual posture or an unusual walking/running gait?

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

63.  Even when sitting or in situations that are low-stress, does the person engage in small

          repetitive, self-stimulatory behaviors?  Examples would be knuckle cracking, pencil

          tapping, fidgeting, hand steepling, grimaces or tics, playing with keys or jewelry, tightening

          of the jaw, eyebrow arching, scratching, nail-biting, and sighing or low-level vocalization.

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

64.  Does the person have digestive difficulties?  Examples would be celiac disease, gluten or

          casein intolerance, and chronic bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome.

 

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

 

                               Never                                                               Always

 

65.  Does the person have strong sensory reactions to touch, light, particular sounds, preference

          for soft or loose clothing, certain odors, texture aversions (extending to certain objects such

          as paper, and certain foods)?  Does the person avoid crowds or have unusual personal

          space boundaries?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

 

                               Never                                                               Always

 

66.  Does the person have a marked insensitivity to pain, heat or cold, or have a bad sense of

          personal safety?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

67.  Does the person have bad hygiene and poor self-care habits?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

 

                               Never                                                               Always

 

68:  Does the person engage in public self-grooming behavior ordinarily done in private?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

 

                               Never                                                               Always

 

69.  Does the person show a preference for a limited range of clothing to the point of his dress

          being very predictable to others?  If "Yes", would it be accurate to describe this limited

          wardrobe as a kind of "uniform"?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

70.  Does the person report discomfort cuddling, hugging, or being held and touched?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

                               Never                                                               Always

 

 

71.  Does the person report low sexual desire or a-sexuality?  Has the person been repeatedly

          warned about inappropriate touching or behaviors considered by the object person to be

          sexual harassment or stalking?  Does the person say they've never understood dating, or

          have given up interest in dating?

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

 

 

 

72:  Does the person have chronic sleep disturbance?  Examples would be difficulty falling

          asleep, waking early, restless sleep and discomfort in sleeping with a partner.

______    ______    ______    ______    ______    ______

 

                               Never                                                               Always

 


 

 

NUMERICAL SCORING:  Add individual numbers for the 72 questions above.  Divide this total number by 72.  For a total average score over "2," see additional instructions at the end of this scale.

Total__________        Divide by 72_________     

   

 

 


 

 

E.  Other Characteristics  (Use checkboxes for "No" and "Yes".)

 

 

73.  Does the person report difficulty living with others, or becoming independent from parents or

          other care givers?                                         

                                                                                                                     

 

                                                                      NO                                          YES

 

74.  Does the person have elaborate, rigidly-adhered to rituals?  Examples are self-care habits,

          eating, having a work area arranged "just so"," arranging personal effects in a precise

          order, and ways of getting to and from places.

 

                                                                                                                     

 

                                                                      NO                                          YES

 

75.  Does the person have a strong attraction to certain visual or auditory patterns?

 

                                                                                                                     

 

                                                                      NO                                          YES

 

76.  Does the person report information about developmental delays or uneven functional

          development as a child?  In school, was he enrolled in a special education program?

 

                                                                                                                     

 

                                                                      NO                                          YES

 

 

77.  Does the person consider himself to be emotionally immature?  Do you agree?

 

                                                                                                                     

 

                                                                      NO                                          YES

 

 

 

78.  Does the person have any history of seizure activity, or demonstrate absence and other low

          level seizure behavior?

 

                                                                                                                     

 

                                                                      NO                                          YES

 

 

79.  Does the person expend so much energy just getting through the work day or school that he

          has no energy left for "a life outside" of those activities?

 

                                                                                                                     

 

                                                                      NO                                          YES

 

 

80.  Has the person turned down management positions with statements to the effect that he is not

          "a management type person"?  Has he been promoted to a management position and then

          demoted or removed due to lack of people-management skills?

 

                                                                                                                     

 

                                                                      NO                                          YES

 

81.  Has the person had trouble retaining employment?  Is there a long history of many jobs, part

          time, unpaid, underpaid work, and temporary or short-duration jobs?

 

                                                                                                                     

 

                                                                      NO                                          YES

 


 

 

Additional Instructions [paraphrase and additions to Attwood, 1998, p. 20]

 

Many items on this adult scale are not found in the Garnett and Attwood (1995) scale.  They have been added to reflect the variety of challenges and issues common to adult life.  The same general point as made in the Garnett and Attwood scale applies here:  Even if there is a "Yes" answer to a majority of these questions, and if the individual's numerical score rating is between two and six as per the Australian scale, this does not necessarily imply that the person has Asperger Syndrome.  Nonetheless, there is a possibility that the person being seen is on the high functioning end of the autistic spectrum.  For the purpose of some entitlement program eligibility, medical diagnosis by an MD, or licensed mental health nurse practitioner authorized to diagnose and prescribe medication is generally preferred over diagnoses by non-medically trained mental health professionals.  If the person is ever to seek entitlement program eligibility, medical diagnoses are less subject to challenge by non-treating disability determination consultative evaluators. (CE's).  If the individual wishes to seek a diagnosis for the purpose of comprehensively understanding his strengths and abilities as well as documenting his challenges, a comprehensive full adult functional neuropsychological evaluation by a psychological professional (Ph.D. or Psy. D. level) with extensive experience working with AS adults is strongly recommended.  If a choice is possible, evaluation by a clinical neuropsychologist with an active clinical practice with adults is preferred over a neuropsychologist who merely evaluates or diagnoses individuals and submits reports to others for their use.

 

 

 

Client/Rater Information

 

 

_________________________________________________

                        Name of Individual being Rated

 

_________________________________________________     ____________________

             Name of Person Completing this Form                            Date

 

_________________________________________________

Signature

______________________

     Title or Relationship

 

_________________________________________________

  Agency, Organization or Business

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

(Address)    Street                             Apt/Suite                   City                   State              ZIP

 

___________________            ___________________________        _____________________

          Phone                                               FAX                                         Email

 

 

Copyright Notice

 

 

This is a draft psychometric scaleIt has not been scientifically validated or normed.  The complete document is copyright by Roger N. Meyer.  All Rights Reserved.  Duplication of this document beyond one printed copy is prohibited. No other use, including "academic fair use" is permitted.

 

Individuals wishing to use this scale for any other than personal purposes on a one-time basis only must secure explicit written permission from the author whose contact information appears below.

 

 

 

 

ROGER N. MEYER

"...of a different mind"

Disability Advocacy, Representation and Private Case Management

18162 East Burnside

Portland, Oregon  97233, USA

Phone and FAX:  503-666-2776

Cell:  503-358-6463

Email:  rogernmeyer@earthlink.net

http://www.rogernmeyer.com

 

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